One of the most used building stones is travertine, which is used in most buildings. This stone has a decorative aspect and has porous limestone. Travertine is formed from the deposits of hot water springs and holes on the rock caused by trapped gases.
Travertine has a high variety of colors and patterns, which are used in the walls of buildings, the floor of swimming pools, paving stones, and facades.
History of travertine
In the Middle Ages and even before that, travertine stone was used to design buildings. This stone was discovered in 75 BC and was seen abundantly in Italy. The Romans made famous works of travertine, and the Colosseum is one of the most famous of these buildings.
The name of this stone is due to the name of the city of Tiburtinus, which is located in Rome.
Travertine stones can be seen in buildings such as Ludwik Mies van der Ruhe, created by the famous American-German designer. The facades of buildings in the USA and Germany that use travertine stone are an example to prove the historicity of travertine stone.
Travertine in our beloved country of Iran has attracted the attention of designers and architects for several years.
Place of formation of travertine stone
Travertine is a calcareous sedimentary stone that is formed by the deposition of minerals and calcium carbonate caused by high temperature in hot springs and limestone caves, as well as in areas with hot weather and heavy rainfall and steep slopes.
How to color travertine stone
Exposure of travertine stone to high temperature has caused the travertine stone to become colored naturally. The wide color variation of travertine is due to the presence of minerals on the surface of this stone, which show themselves in the form of streaks and different colors.
High temperature, rain and the activation of aragonite carbonate have created white, red, yellow, orange and brown travertines.
Calcite soils also create gray, white, yellow and green travertines.
Characteristics of travertine stone
- Travertine is a sedimentary limestone.
- Travertine has wavy layers.
- Travertine has a slope
- Porosity is another characteristic of travertine stone.
- Travertine is resistant to wear and impact.
- Travertine stone is very easy to cut and mold.
- Travertine has a unique resistance to pressure and heat.
- Travertine is a heat and sound insulator.
- Travertine has a very good adhesion with mortar.
- Travertine is lightweight.
- Travertine has high polishability.
- Travertine has high water absorption, which can be ignored due to resin and epoxy processes.
- Travertine has a variety of colors and designs.
Advantages and disadvantages of travertine stone
Among the advantages of travertine stone, the following can be mentioned:
- The lack of heat absorption, which has made the surface of this stone always cool and can be used in hot areas. Travertine creates a feeling of coolness in the pool and bathroom.
- Travertine has a lot of porosity, which has caused it to not have a polished surface and prevents slipping.
- The unique texture of travertine stone is another advantage of this stone.
- Travertine has color stability and does not fade over time.
- Common travertines in the market have a reasonable price.
- Travertine can be cut and polished as well.
- Travertine is insulated against sound and heat.
- It is possible to cut travertine both in wavy and non-wave form.
- The existence of holes and pores in this stone causes the cement mortar to stick to the stone and prevents the stone from falling and makes it easy to install.
- High resistance of travertine against contraction and expansion is another advantage of travertine stone.
- The high resistance of travertine to the sun’s rays has led to the use of this stone in building facades.
- Travertine is easy to clean and can be cleaned with just a surface wash.
And the disadvantages of travertine stone include the following:
- Travertine, if used for flooring, is more expensive than concrete flooring.
- Special colors that are associated with a more special texture have a higher price than simple textures.
- Travertine stone is not mined in all regions and can only be mined in certain regions.
- Excessive freezing and melting has damaged the structure of this stone and caused us to be unable to use the thin thickness of this stone in cool spaces.
Applications of travertine stone
- Stone facade, especially Roman stone facade
- wall cornice
- stepping stone
- Floor Covering
- Stone artifacts
- Kitchen cabinet tops and tiles
- Shower enclosures
- pool floor
- Dedicated inputs
- Fire pit
- Yard and patio
- Corridors and paths
Travertine stone cutting
Travertine can be cut both wavy and non-wave. Wavy cutting is the same way that it is extracted from the mine. In this method, the stone is cut vertically, and the veins and waves on the surface of the stone are natural. But in waveless cutting, which is more popular with buyers today, they rotate the cup and cut it in the direction of the stone veins. In this method, the resistance of the stone is less and it causes deviation in the stone, but there is no such problem in the wavy method.
Travertine is among the stones that are abundantly available in Iran as well as in Italy. In Central province, Mahalat city has the highest rank of producer and miner of travertine stone. Popular travertines such as Abbas Abad travertine are extracted from the mines of Mahalat city.
Ateshkouh travertine, Bokhari Valley travertine, etc. are other popular stones of this region.
Other regions such as Isfahan, West Azarbaijan and Yazd also have a large share in travertine mining.
Types of travertine stone processing
Travertine stone can be processed in the following ways:
The stylish and luxurious appearance of the travertine stone in a polished cut has caused this stone to have a shiny surface that reflects the light.
In this type of processing, the stone has a uniform appearance, but it is opaque and prevents the reflection of light.
The processing of travertine in the form of a brush has created a rustic appearance that the use of special brushes and the creation of textures has created such an attraction.
In this type of processing, the stone is first measured and then cut and placed in a plastic cover, and its surface is sanded with water and abrasive materials, and sometimes some acid is used in its processing. This type of travertine has a natural appearance.
Tumble travertine is the same as brush travertine and the only difference between the two is that tumble has smoother corners.
According to the type of stone, travertine has different prices, but in general, travertine has a more reasonable price than other products and is placed in the category of affordable luxury stones.
Travertine resistance and longevity
The choice of this product depends on the desired location and if it is stored correctly, it can be used for a long time. Correct installation is one of the important factors that has a direct impact on the stone’s resistance.
Travertine has neither the smoothness of marble nor the roughness of granite. If a heavy object is dragged on the travertine stone, it causes scratches on the surface of this stone.
How to clean travertine stone
For better maintenance of this stone, it is recommended to apply sealer to the surface of this stone every 3 to 5 years, provided that chemical products are not used to clean this stone, in which case the period of use of sealer will be shorter.
To clean the travertine stone, it is necessary to first sweep the surface of the stone and clean it from dust, the presence of dust causes the stone to turn pale and change its color.
You can clean the stone using lukewarm water or a sponge, but you must be careful not to pour water on the stone at once because the sealer will pass through the surface of the stone and penetrate the inner layers of the stone and cause mold.
You can use a tablespoon of non-acidic dishwashing liquid to clean the stone, mix it in water and clean the surface of the stone and then clean it with water and finally remove the moisture and wetness of the stone with a dry towel.
To clean the seam between the travertine stones, it is enough to apply some baking soda and water to this seam with a brush. Be careful not to damage the grout.
Comparison of porcelain stone with travertine stone
There are many Chinese slabs available in the market that are very similar to natural travertine stone. These Chinese stones have better resistance and hardness than travertines, although their appearance is not exactly similar to travertines. But they have the ability to be polished in the form of travertine. Chinese stones have a more reasonable price than travertine and they do not cost so much for installation per square meter.
Types of travertine stones
The constituent compounds of travertine stones have caused variety of designs and colors in these stones. These compounds include minerals, weather temperature, calcium and other impurities.
The lower the amount of water used in the ingredients, the brighter the color and the higher the price. In the following, we will give a brief explanation about the types of travertine stones.
Abbasabad white travertine
Abbas Abad travertine is one of the best white travertine stones in the world and is mostly used in building facades. This stone has high sandability and very favorable adhesion. Some varieties of Abbasabad travertine have brown and honey marble veins, which has caused the price of this stone to increase.
Abyaneh white travertine
Abyaneh white travertine is one of the brightest and most uniform travertine stones. Travertine has durability and high quality and creates a beautiful appearance in the building. Abianeh Saab white travertine has high and favorable cutability. Many flaws in this stone have made this stone lighter.
Fire Mountain Travertine
Ateshkouh travertine, which is also known as meteorite travertine, Emdad, and white Mahalat travertine, has a white background and beautiful and regular waves can be seen on its surface. Bright color and high absorbability as well as favorable physical characteristics are the prominent characteristics of Ateshkouh travertine stone. The application of Ateshkoh travertine stone is in the facade of the building, and the brighter it is and the fewer and more regular its halos, the higher the price will be.
Haji Abad travertine
Hajiabad travertine has a light cream to chocolate colored background and has less porosity than other travertines, which has caused it to have high compressive strength and sanding ability. Hajiabad travertine is used for landscaping and making decorative items. The brighter and waveless nature of this stone and the regularity of the halos on this stone cause the price of this stone to increase.
Kashan travertine is one of the popular travertines that has chocolate, cream and walnut colors. This stone has less porosity than other travertines. High compressive strength, reasonable price, light weight and abrasion are other characteristics of Kashan travertine stone. There are different varieties of Kashan travertine.
Travertine is one of the other commonly used travertine stones for construction, which has a chocolate, beige and cream background. This stone is very similar to the Hajiabad travertine stone, and the reasonable price of this stone has made this stone a good substitute for Hajiabad travertine. The application of this stone is in the facade of the building, and the weaker varieties of this stone are used in the preparation of stone tables and caps.