Granite, which is known as Seng Khara, is a type of igneous rock. Granite is a hard rock. This type of stone is one of the most abundant stones. Granite rocks are divided into two types of internal and external igneous rocks based on the stages of formation. External igneous rocks have a fine texture due to the high rate of heat loss, such as basalt and rhyolite granite stones, but granites such as gabbro, which are formed due to the gradual cooling of molten materials, have a fine texture. They have large seeds.
How granite is formed
Granites are formed by the gradual cooling of molten magma near the earth’s surface. Bajsham granite crystals can be seen. This rock is formed next to mountain ranges that have the possibility of shifting the earth’s plates. Molten magma rises and is cooled by erosion and wind, and finally granite rock is formed. Feldspar and quartz and a small amount of mica and amphibole are the main ingredients of granite. Quartz is the factor that determines the color of granite stone, and the presence of this mineral in the stone determines the brightness of the granite stone. These molten materials are created either inside the earth or due to the eruption of volcanoes.
Features of granite stone
- Granite stone has remarkable resistance and strength.
- Unlike limestone, the porosity of this stone is almost zero.
- It has high density.
- It has a high weight.
- It has high resistance to shock, scratch, abrasion and heat.
- It has little water absorption.
- It does not stain.
- It has high adaptability.
- It has high polishability.
- It can bear high weight.
Applications of granite stone
- Floor stone of public places
- stepping stone
- Cabinet stone
- Internal and external facade stone (especially for cold regions where water absorption is low, granite prevents freezing and cracking of stone at low temperatures.)
- The entrance part of the building
- Industrial halls (due to high resistance to chemicals and acids)
- Beautiful sculptures in museums
- Impressive built columns
- Magnificent arches
- Thick blocks
- Floor tiles
- Counter tables
Advantages and disadvantages of granite
The advantages of granite stone include the following:
- Durability and high resistance to atmospheric factors
- Durability and high resistance to acidic substances
- Can be used in high traffic places
- High strength and durability
- Beauty and smooth surface
- Resistance to water penetration
The disadvantages of granite stone include the following:
- One of the most important disadvantages of granite is its high weight.
- High cost of processing
- Low color variation
- Poor absorption
- Not insulating against sound and heat
- The solid and non-porous nature of the granite stone has reduced its adhesion to the mortar and brings with it the possibility of its separation and falling from the building, for this reason we cannot use this stone in elevations and facades.
Granite stone can be extracted from mines all over the earth’s crust, and the amount of minerals in the formation of this stone has caused a different appearance and color theme.
Iran, Italy, Brazil, India, China and Taiwan are among the countries that have mined granite. Each of these mines produce different stones, for example, Iranian granite stones are coarse-grained and consist of transparent quartz and white to dark pink feldspar and are free of any streaks or fossils. But even some of the granite produced in Iran, such as the jungle granite, does not match this description and has a completely different appearance.
Iranian granites usually have white, gray, black, red and green colors and are extracted from quarries located in different cities of Natanz, Zahedan, Khormadreh, Yazd, Borujerd.
Mashhad Pearl Granite, Nehbandan Granite, Birjand Lettuce Green Granite, Birjand Forest Green Granite, Khorram Dere Granite, Turquoise Granite and Hamadan Flower Granite are among the most famous granite mining mines in Iran.
The price of granite stone
Processing granite stones has a higher cost than marble and travertine stones. White granite stones have a higher price than dark granite stones.
Color, texture, intended use, as well as dimensions are other factors that affect the price of granite.
The larger the dimensions and thickness of the granite stone, the higher the price of the stone.
The more uniform the color of the granite stone, the more free from stains and no lumps can be seen on the surface, the higher the quality of the stone and the higher the price.
Types of granite stones
The structure of the granite stone and the type of minerals in it have caused the variety of colors of these stones. For example, quartz makes the stone transparent and light gray, but the color theme of feldspar is different from one stone to another. Iranian granite stones have a coarse texture and have light and dark crystals.
In the following, we have introduced some granite stones:
Alaskan white granite
One of the most beautiful and expensive granites is Alaskan white granite, which is mined in Brazil and processed into slabs
Blue pearl granite
Blue granite is another beautiful granite that is produced in Norway and its processing is in the form of slabs and it is used for wall covering and floor covering of the interior spaces of buildings.
Ice white granite
Ice white granite is mined in Brazil and used for modern interior spaces such as walls and floors of buildings. This type of granite has a light gray background and has a metallic finish. White and black streaks can be seen on the surface of this stone.
Fusion is one of the most beautiful granites, which has a gray and light cream background and smoky and faded white, green, blue and orange colors. This stone is produced and mined in Brazil and is used in the interior decoration of buildings.
This type of granite also has a white background and dark streaks can be seen on its surface. The appearance of this type of granite is clean and bright, and it is used in kitchen counters, floors and walls of interior spaces. This stone is mined in Brazil.
Volga blue granite
One of the most durable granites is Volga blue granite. This stone is mined in Ukraine. The color of this stone is dark and dark gray and blue shades can be seen on the surface of this stone. High resistance and durability have caused the use of this stone in the interior and exterior of buildings.
Birjand jungle granite
The most famous and best type of Iranian granite is Birjand forest granite, which has a dark green color theme with yellow and lemon veins, and dark black and white shawls can be seen on its surface. This stone is used in the floor of the building and the frame around the elevator. This stone is produced and extracted in South Khorasan, Birjand city.
Different climatic conditions in each region where granite is mined have caused the creation of various gray, cream and orange colors. This stone is used in counters, cabinets, etc. The mines producing this stone are located in the west of Azerbaijan province.
Natanz white granite
Natanz white granite has a white background with small black grains, which are evenly and regularly scattered in it. This stone is used in the floor of the hall, bathroom, kitchen, meeting halls, crowded places, etc. This stone is mined in Natanz mines of Isfahan province.
Nehbandan granite has a white background color with black and gray flowers. This stone is used for stepping stones, floor stones, interior and exterior facades, all kinds of countertops, cabinet tops, and islands. The mine of this stone is located in South Khorasan province and Nehbandan city.
Natanz black granite
Natanz black granite is a resistant stone and it is placed in the category of dark granite stones with a black background. On the surface of these small gray crystal grains can be seen. This stone is produced in many mines, therefore it has a wide variety. This stone is mainly extracted in the mines of Natanz city, Isfahan province.
Yazd red granite
This type of stone is very strong and is also known as Sumaghi granite and Tomato granite. Yazd red granite is exported to Iran in raw form. Stone vanity and decoration, columns, cabinet panels, etc. are among the uses of this stone. The area of Ghalee Kharabi near the Gavkhoni wetland of Yazd province is one of the mines that extract this stone.
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